Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by the abnormalities in one or a combination of the following processes:
– relative insulin resistance
– impaired insulin production and secretion
– increased glucose production.
In T2D, muscle, liver and fat cells are unable to use insulin due to the above mentioned abnormalities. Therefore, the body makes more insulin to help glucose enter the cells and be used for energy. With time, the pancreas cannot meet the high demand of insulin and loses its ability to produce enough. The lack of insulin leads to hyperglycemia.
T2D accounts for ~90-95% of patients with diabetes and usually presents during adulthood; however, the incidence of adolescent onset of T2D is increasing. T2D is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, and race.